All posts by Lia Morese

Assistenza alle Vittime: cosa aspettarsi nel 2021?

Assistenza alle Vittime: cosa aspettarsi nel 2021?

di Wanda Muñoz (SEHLAC, Messico)

Tratto dal sito Forum on the Arms Trade

Traduzione in italiano non ufficiale Campagna Italiana contro le mine

L’Assistenza alle Vittime (VA) di mine antipersona e di munizioni cluster è andata costantemente evolvendo sin da quando per la prima volta venne inclusa tra gli obblighi dell’Art 6.3 del Trattato di Messa al Bando delle Mine.

Ad esempio, è assodato che:

  • L’Assistenza alle Vittime (VA) è un processo olistico ed un insieme di servizi che include la salute, la riabilitazione, il supporto psicosociale, l’educazione e l’inclusione sia sociale che economica.
  • La VA non dovrebbe discriminare tra sopravvissuti a differenti armi, o tra sopravvissuti ad incidenti con armi e persone con menomazioni dovute ad altre cause; e dovrebbe essere pianificata, implementata, monitorata e valutata con la piena partecipazione dei sopravvissuti e delle altre persone con disabilità e le organizzazioni che li rappresentano.
  • La VA dovrebbe includere e rispondere ai bisogni ed ai diritti dei sopravvissuti, delle famiglie di coloro che sono rimasti uccisi o feriti, e delle comunità colpite; dovrebbe inoltre comprendere considerazioni relative al genere, all’età e alle diversità.
  • La VA dovrebbe essere ricompresa in una cornice più ampia connessa tra gli altri, con la Convenzione delle Nazioni Unite sui Diritti delle Persone con Disabilità (UNCRPD) e con gli Obiettivi di Sviluppo Sostenibile (SDGs), così da essere sostenibile. Affinché questa strategia possa essere efficace, dovrebbe incorporare servizi di aggiornamento e meccanismi di monitoraggio che assicurino che i sopravvissuti stiano effettivamente accedendo ai loro diritti.

Tenendo tutto questo presente, che tipo di sviluppi sull’Assistenza alle Vittime possiamo aspettarci nel 2021?

Vedremo sempre più ricerche da parte delle organizzazioni dei sopravvissuti. Ricerche condotte da Afghan Landmine Survivor Organization (ALSO) e dalla Fundación Red de Sobrevivientes de El Salvador sull’impatto del COVID, ed un progetto in corso a cura del Latin American Network of Mine Survivors on armed violence, sono esempi eccellenti e dovrebbe continuare ad essere supportati dalla comunità internazionale.

  • In situazioni di emergenza, i diritti delle persone con disabilità saranno affrontati in modo più specifico grazie all’Azione #40 del Oslo Action Plan. Gli Stati Parte al Trattato di Messa al Bando delle Mine dovrebbero riportare circa le misure per garantire che le persone con disabilità, inclusi i sopravvissuti, partecipino e traggano beneficio dai programmi di sicurezza e protezione in situazioni di conflitto, emergenze umanitarie e disastri naturali. A questo proposito, se gli Stati parte alla Convenzione sulle Munizioni Cluster (CCM) vogliono facilitare sinergie e garantire chiarezza sul fatto che tutti i sopravvissuti hanno gli stessi diritti, un’Azione simile dovrebbe essere inclusa nel Lausanne Action Plan.
  • Accessibilità digitale sarà ulteriormente sviluppata e standardizzata a causa della situazione in corso e delle restrizioni nei viaggi dovuti alla pandemia per il COVID-19. A mano a mano che sempre più comunicazioni avvengono online, e persone più diverse si connettono tramite piattaforma e servizi elettronici, tutti, compresi coloro che sono impegnati nella VA- dovrebbero ragionare su come rendere la comunicazione online accessibile alle persone con differenti tipologie di menomazione attraverso tecnologie assistive tipo: lettori di schermo, lenti d’ingrandimento, sottotitoli e trascrizioni. I sottotitoli e la presenza di un interprete per il linguaggio dei segni nel corso delle riunioni su VA organizzati dalla Implementation Support Unit del Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining è un eccellente esempio (ed i sottotitoli sono utili anche per coloro i quali – la maggior parte in queste riunioni- non sono madre lingua inglese). È necessario riflettere di più su come possiamo garantire che le tecnologie della comunicazione possano essere rese accessibili a coloro che sono più emarginati e che spesso vivono in zone rurali e remote; e a coloro che presentano contemporaneamente più disabilità come le persone sordocieche. Questo può essere vitale, ad esempio, per contattare i servizi essenziali in caso di violenza domestica; per chiedere aiuto durante i disastri naturali; per avere accesso al supporto tra pari; o per essere informati su come accedere ai diritti ed ai servizi, più in generale.
  • Approcci basati sull’età e sul genere diventeranno più chiari nelle pratiche e nei report degli Stati Parte, e la violenza di genere sulle donne e ragazze con disabilità potrebbe iniziare ad essere messa sul tavolo. Si tratta di una questione importante che dovrebbe essere affrontata se vogliamo davvero lavorare per l’uguaglianza di genere. Infatti, UNFPA ha riportato che le ragazze e le donne con disabilità affrontano episodi di violenza sessuale fino a dieci volte in più rispetto a chi non ha disabilità! E, come tutti noi sappiamo, la situazione si è aggravata durante la pandemia. Il tema della violenza di genere è stato già sollevato da alcune sopravvissute e da attiviste con disabilità provenienti dal Pakistan e dal Nicaragua in occasione della conferenza “Fostering Partnerships: Global Conference on Assistance to Victims of Anti-Personnel Mines and Other Explosive Remnants of War, and Disability Rights”  che si è svolta in Giordania nel 2019; e brevemente discussa con Ms. Soledad Cisternas, Inviata Speciale delle Nazioni Unite per la Disabilità e l’Accessibilità, in un recente incontro sull’Assistenza alle Vittime.
  • Sinergie significative tra il Trattato di Messa al Bando delle Mine, la Convenzione sulle Munizioni Cluster, la Convenzione sui Diritti delle Persone con Disabilità (UNCRPD) e altre cornici di riferimento continueranno ad essere rafforzate. La “VA Community” ora include sistematicamente in tutte le discussioni le organizzazioni ed istituzioni che operano nell’ambito dei diritti delle persone con disabilità. È fondamentale sottolineare che tali sinergie dovrebbero andare di pari passo con servizi di aggiornamento e meccanismi di monitoraggio che possano effettivamente garantire che i sopravvissuti accedano veramente ai sevizi attraverso queste altre strutture. Questo è particolarmente cruciale quando il supporto finanziario internazionale dedicato alla VA continua a sperimentare una tendenza di ribasso; e quando sembra esserci una mancanza di prove che i fondi soppressi alla VA e i programmi mirati senza tali servizi di aggiornamento e meccanismi di monitoraggio funzioni effettivamente. Dovrebbe essere condotta una ricerca basata sull’evidenza per valutare in quale misura i sopravvissuti stanno effettivamente accedendo ai loro diritti attraverso strutture più ampie; e che tipo di meccanismi debbano essere messi in atto affinché queste sinergie funzionino sulla base dell’esperienza di campo e sull’esperienza reale dei sopravvissuti stessi.

Nel 2021, le persone interessate o che lavorano nell’Assistenza alle Vittime potranno fare riferimento anche a:

  • La Prima Riunione degli Stati Parte al Trattato sulla Proibizione delle Armi Nucleari che dovrebbe affrontare il tema dell’assistenza alle vittime;
  • Il lavoro portato avanti da Human Rights Watch in collaborazione con la Harvard Law School International Human Rights Clinic sulle vittime e sulle conseguenze dell’uso di armi incendiarie; ed
  • Il processo internazionale relativo all’uso delle armi esplosive nelle aree popolate che dovrebbe includere forti considerazioni sull’assistenza alle vittime.

Indubbiamente, il 2021 sarà anche un anno stimolante. Ma dovrebbe esserlo nella continuazione del lavoro collettivo per garantire la costruzione di un mondo più inclusivo e accessibile per tutti – includendo donne, ragazze, uomini e ragazzi sopravvissuti, le famiglie di coloro che sono rimasti uccisi e feriti e le comunità colpite da ogni tipo di arma.

 

Victim Assistance: what can we expect in 2021?

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This is the second blog post in a series looking at an array of issues in 2021 related to weapons use, the arms trade and security assistance, at times offering recommendations.
Assistance to victims of antipersonnel mines and cluster munitions has been constantly evolving since it first was included as an obligation in Article 6.3 of the Mine Ban Treaty.For instance, it is now agreed that:

  • Victim assistance (VA) is a holistic process and set of services that includes health, rehabilitation, psychosocial support, education and social and economic inclusion.
  • VA should not discriminate among survivors of different weapons, or between them and people with impairments from other causes; and it should be planned, implemented, monitored and evaluated with the full participation of survivors and other people with disabilities and their representative organizations.
  • VA should include and respond to the needs and rights of survivors, the families of those killed and injured, and affected communities; and it should incorporate gender, age and diversity considerations.
  • VA should be incorporated into larger frameworks related to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), among others, in order to be sustainable. For this strategy to be effective, it should incorporate referral services and monitoring mechanisms that ensure that survivors are effectively accessing their rights.

With this in mind, what developments can we expect on victim assistance in 2021?

  • We will see more and more research by survivors’ organizations. Research by the Afghan Landmine Survivor Organization (ALSO) and Fundación Red de Sobrevivientes de El Salvador on the impact of COVID, and an ongoing project by the Latin American Network of Mine Survivors on armed violence, are excellent examples and should continue to be supported by the international community.
  • The rights of people with disabilities, including survivors, in situations of emergency, will be addressed more specifically thanks to Action #40 of the Oslo Action Plan. State Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty should report on measures to ensure people with disabilities including survivors participate in, and benefit from, safety and protection programs in situations of conflict, humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters. In this regard, if State Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions want to facilitate synergies and ensure clarity that all survivors have the same rights, a similar Action should be included in the Lausanne Action Plan.
  • Digital accessibility will be further developed and normalized due to the ongoing movement and travel restrictions because of the COVID-19 pandemic. As more and more communications go online, and more diverse people connect via electronic platforms and services, everyone -including those involved in victim assistance- should think about how to make online communications accessible to people with different types of impairments through assistive technologies such as screen readers, magnifiers, captioning and transcriptions. The captioning and presence of a sign language interpreter in the VA meetings organized by the Implementation Support Unit of the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is an excellent example (and the captioning is useful too for those of us – the majority in those meetings- for whom English is not our mother tongue!). More thought needs to go into how we can ensure that communication technologies can be made accessible to those that are more marginalized and who often live in rural and remote areas; and to those with multiple impairments, such as deafblind persons. This can be vital, for instance, to contact essential services in cases of domestic violence; to ask for help during natural disasters; to have access to peer to peer support; or to get information about how to access rights and services, more generally.
  • Age and gender approaches will become clearer in the practices and in the reports of State Parties; and gender-based violence against women and girls with disabilities may start getting onto the table. It is a major issue that should be addressed if we really want to work towards gender equality. Indeed, UNFPA has reported that girls and women with disabilities face up to ten more time more sexual violence than those without disabilities! And, as we all know, the situation has been exacerbated during the pandemic. Gender-based violence was already brought up by women survivors and activists with disabilities from Pakistan and Nicaragua at the Jordan “Fostering Partnerships: Global Conference on Assistance to Victims of Anti-Personnel Mines and Other Explosive Remnants of War, and Disability Rights” conference in 2019, for instance; and briefly discussed with Ms. Soledad Cisternas, UN Special Envoy for Disability and Accessibility, at a recent meeting on victim assistance.
  • Meaningful synergies between the Mine Ban Treaty, the Convention on Cluster Munitions, the UNCRPD and other frameworks will continue to be strengthened. The “VA Community” now systematically includes organizations and institutions working on the rights of people with disabilities in all discussions. But it is fundamental to underline that such synergies should go hand in hand with referral services and monitoring mechanisms that can effectively make sure that survivors are truly accessing services through these other frameworks. This is particularly crucial when international financial support dedicated to VA continues a downward trend; and when there seems to be a lack of evidence that suppressing VA funds and targeted programs without such referral services and monitoring mechanisms actually works. Evidence-based research should be carried out to evaluate to what extent survivors are effectively accessing their rights through larger frameworks; and what mechanisms need to be in place for these synergies to work- based on field experience and on the actual experience of survivors themselves.

In 2021, those of us interested or working on victim assistance can also look forward to:

  • The First Meeting of State Parties of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, which should address victim assistance;
  • The work of Human Rights Watch and Harvard Law School International Human Rights Clinic on the victims and the consequences of the use of incendiary weapons; and
  • The international process related to the use of explosive weapons in populated areas, which should include strong victim assistance considerations.

Undoubtedly, 2021 will also be a challenging year. But It should be one that continues the collective work to ensure we build a more inclusive, accessible world for all – including women, girls, men and boys who are survivors, families of those killed and injured, and the communities affected by all types of weapons.

Wanda Muñoz is a member of SEHLAC in Mexico and an inclusion, victim assistance, and humanitarian disarmament expert.

Traduzione in Italiano  >>>

 

Armenia: Cluster Munitions Used in Multiple Attacks on Azerbaijan

Schermata 2020-12-16 alle 14.42.52

(Berlin) – Armenian or allied Nagorno-Karabakh forces repeatedly fired widely banned cluster munitions in attacks on populated areas in Azerbaijan during the six-week war over Nagorno-Karabakh, Human Rights Watch said today. The use of cluster munitions violates the laws of war due to the weapons’ inherently indiscriminate nature.

During a visit in Azerbaijan in November 2020, Human Rights Watch researchers documented four attacks with cluster munitions in three of the country’s districts. They killed at least seven civilians, including two children, and wounded close to 20, including two children.

“Cluster munitions are a brutal weapon, banned under an international treaty, and using them shows flagrant disregard for civilian life,” said Hugh Williamson, Europe and Central Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “Both Armenia and Azerbaijan should make an immediate commitment not to use cluster munitions and join the treaty banning them.”

Cluster munitions can be fired from the ground by artillery, rockets, and mortars, or dropped by aircraft. They typically open in the air, dispersing multiple bomblets or submunitions over a wide area, putting anyone in the area at the time of attack, whether combatants or civilians, at risk of death or injury. In addition, many of the submunitions do not explode on contact, but remain armed, becoming de facto landmines. Locations contaminated by unexploded submunitions remain dangerous until the remnants are cleared and destroyed.

Human Rights Watch did research about the intense fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh from September 27 until a ceasefire on November 11. In Nagorno-Karabakh, Human Rights Watch documented Azerbaijan’s use of cluster munitions in four attacks: three in Stepanakert and one in Hadrut. Human Rights Watch also documented a cluster munition attack on the city of Barda in Azerbaijan that killed 21 civilians and wounded 70 in October.

During a research trip in Azerbaijan in the first half of November, Human Rights Watch documented four attacks with cluster munitions by Armenian forces, including one in Barda district, two in Goranboy district, and one in Tartar district. While Human Rights Watch was not in a position to determine the presence or proximity of military personnel, equipment, or vehicles at the impact sites at the time of the attacks, the inherently indiscriminate nature of cluster munitions makes their use a violation of the laws of war, irrespective of whether there were legitimate military targets in the areas.

Witnesses said that an attack by Armenian forces between 4 p.m. and 5 p.m. on October 5 in Gizilhajili, a small village in Goranboy district roughly 30 kilometers from the then-front line, killed Raziya Abbasova, 65, wounded three of her neighbors, including one child, and set fire to the nearby house of Gulnara Huseynova, 46. The Azerbaijani National Agency for Mine Action (ANAMA) identified the munition used as a Smerch rocket. Residents said they counted at least six explosions. Human Rights Watch visited the area on November 9 and identified four impact sites and observed fragmentation damage consistent with a Smerch cluster munition rocket attack.

Yashar Abbasov, 58, said that two blasts hit his property, and that his wife, Raziya, was killed in the second attack. He keeps a photograph of Raziya under a cloth, on a dresser with a mirror that was also damaged in the attack that killed her. “Just before it all happened, a neighbor called me and I stepped out in the street to see him,” he said. “I was 15 meters from our place and then there was this horrible sound and the ground started shaking. [I] ran back – but it was too late.”

During the attacks, their 9-year-old neighbor Eljan Hasanov was wounded, together with his grandfather, Mashdi, 62, and aunt, Sevinj, 36. Eljan’s mother, Ziyafat Hasanova, 35, said that Eljan was playing outside with his two sisters when they heard an explosion and rushed home. Eljan’s grandmother, Jamila Allahverdiyeva, said the entryway “was splattered in blood” and all the windows had shattered.

In Tapgaragoyunlu, a village in Goranboy district that was repeatedly shelled in the course of the six-week war, Anar Safarov, a local resident, showed Human Rights Watch where submunitions from a cluster munition attack damaged his home on October 23. “About seven or eight of them landed here, dropping all over the yard,” he said. “I hid behind the wall [of the shed] and did not get out until it was over.” ANAMA identified the munition as a Smerch rocket. Human Rights Watch observed fragmentation damage consistent with a Smerch cluster munition rocket attack.

Human Rights Watch is not in a position to say whether there were any legitimate military targets in Gizilhajili on October 5. When Human Rights Watch visited the strike site on November 8, researchers did not observe any military objectives in the vicinity. However, on the road from the district center, Goranboy, to Gizilhajili, researchers saw at least 10 large military transport trucks. While in Tapgaragoyunlu on November 9, Human Rights Watch observed a significant military presence, including a large military base and numerous military trucks. The presence of military targets does not justify indiscriminate attacks on densely populated areas, and particularly not cluster munition attacks.

In Tartar district, at around 10 a.m. on October 24, Orkhan Mammadov, 16, from the village of Khoruzlu, was killed in a cluster munition attack as he was working picking pomegranates in an orchard outside the village of Kebirli. His cousins Togrul Mammadov, 11, and Parviz Alishev, 14, were with him. “We heard this weird whooshing sound,” Parviz said. “Togrul and I [dropped to the ground] but Orhan didn’t. The shrapnel hit him in his back, went out his chest. He died instantly.”

The authorities said the strike was carried out by a Smerch rocket. Human Rights Watch observed a small impact crater and sheared-off tree branches, consistent with a submunition attack. Residents were not aware of any military objectives in the area at the time of the attack, and Human Rights Watch did not see any military installations or transport in the vicinity of the site.

In the village of Garayusifli, Barda district, a cluster munition attack at around 4:30 p.m. on October 27 killed five civilians and wounded 15.

Rafig Isgandarov, 58, a local resident, said he heard “multiple, consecutive explosions, within a minute. Thirty hectares of land were affected by the explosions.” The attack killed his granddaughter, Aysu Iskandarova, 7, and wounded her cousin Tahira Isgandarli, 3, in her lower right leg. “It landed in my neighbor’s livestock pen, and a piece went through the gate and killed my little girl,” said Aysu’s father, Rovshan Isgandarov, 32. Human Rights Watch observed significant damage to 12 houses in the area.

Local residents said that Ofelia Jafarova, 48, was wounded and died on the way to the hospital, and Almaz Aliyeva, 60, died the following day. Ehtiram Imayilov, 40, was killed, and his wife and daughter were still hospitalized as of early November. Aybeniz Ahmadova, 61, was killed while working in a field. “She was pierced with so many fragments that they had to wrap her body in plastic to stop the bleeding,” said Elnur Khalilov, 46, the village authorities’ representative.

Human Rights Watch observed seven small craters in the field consistent with the impacts of cluster submunitions. The village of 290 families, most with small farms, had not been attacked before or after October 27. Human Rights Watch did not observe any military installation or military transportation movement in the vicinity at the time of the visit, and residents said they were not aware of any military targets in the area at the time of the attack.

In a meeting with Human Rights Watch on November 27 in Yerevan, a Foreign Affairs Ministry representative denied that Armenia possesses any cluster munitions in its arsenal.

Standard international reference publications, including the authoritative annual Military Balance 2020 by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, state that Armenia has Tockhka and Iskander ballistic missiles and Smerch and Chinese-made WM-80 multi-barrel rocket launchers, all of which can deliver cluster munition warheads. As far as Human Rights Watch is aware, Nagorno-Karabakh forces do not possess cluster munitions, and it is therefore likely that Armenian forces carried out the attacks or supplied the munitions to Nagorno-Karabakh forces.

As prohibited weapons, cluster munitions should not be used or supplied by anyone under any circumstances, Human Rights Watch said.

 

Jacqulyn Kantack
Associate, Arms DivisionHuman Rights Watch

1275 K St. NW Suite 1100

Washington, DC 20005
Phone : +1 202 612 4351

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10 anni di progressi

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Comunicato stampa

10 anni di progressi nell’eliminazione delle bombe a grappolo, offuscati dall’uso continuo, mentre gli Stati Parte si incontrano per la Conferenza di Revisione della Convenzione sulle Munizioni Cluster (CCM).

(Roma, 25 novembre 2020): dieci anni dopo l’entrata in vigore, il trattato internazionale di messa al bando delle bombe a grappolo, sta avendo un impatto significativo nell’eliminazione di queste armi, nell’assistenza ai paesi contaminati e nella costruzione di un forte stigma contro le bombe cluster; ma nuovi utilizzi in diversi paesi che non hanno firmato la Convenzione sulle Munizioni Cluster continuano a minacciare la vita dei civili durante gli attacchi e negli anni a seguire, così come riportato dal Cluster Munition Monitor1, report giunto alla sua undicesima edizione, presentato oggi dalla Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC).

Il report evidenzia come l’implementazione della distruzione delle scorte rappresenti un successo notevoledella Convenzione. Sin dalla sua adozione nel 2008, un totale di 1.5 milioni di munizioni cluster, contenente più di 178 milioni di submunizioni, sono stati distrutti. Questa cifra rappresenta il 99% del totale globale di scorte di munizioni cluster dichiarati dagli Stati Parte.

La Svizzera, che presiede la Seconda Conferenza di Revisione della Convenzione al via oggi, è stato l’ultimoStato Parte a completare la distruzione delle proprie scorte a marzo del 2019.

Da luglio 2012, si sono susseguiti 686 attacchi che hanno impiegato munizioni cluster in Siria, paese che nonha aderito alla Convenzione e che rappresenta l’unico paese ad aver subito un uso continuo di questi ordignida allora.
Il Cluster Monitor riporta che nessuno degli Stati Parte alla CCM ha fatto uso di munizioni cluster dalla sua entrata in vigore.

All’interno del Report troviamo riportato anche l’uso nel 2019 in Libia, paese non firmatario della CCM, inoltre ad ottobre di quest’anno, munizioni cluster sono state impiegate nel conflitto del Nagorno – Karabakh siadall’Armenia che dall’Azerbaijan, ma le conferme sono arrivate solo dopo che il Monitor 2020 era stato stampato.

“Il dato allarmante relativo agli incidenti provocati dalle munizioni a grappolo ci impone di contrastare questi ordigni indiscriminati anche con strumenti che affianchino e rafforzino gli obblighi contenuti nella CCM comeil ddl “ Misure per contrastare il finanziamento delle imprese produttrici di mine antipersona, di munizioni esubmunizioni a grappolo” dichiara Giuseppe Schiavello direttore della Campagna Italiana contro le mine“questo strumento normativo consentirebbe di contrastare queste armi anche dal punto di vista finanziario,una sua pronta e definitiva approvazione consentirebbe al nostro paese di fare ancora una volta la differenza nella tutela delle popolazioni civili durante e dopo i conflitti”.

Durante il periodo di revisione di 10 anni coperto dal Cluster Munition Monitor 2020 sono stati identificatialmeno 4.315 incidenti da munizioni cluster in 20 paesi e altre aree. Oltre l’80% degli incidenti è statoregistrato in Siria, mentre i bambini rappresentano il 40% di tutti gli incidenti.

1 Il Cluster Munition Monito utilizza la Convenzione sulle Munizioni Cluster del 2008 come principale cornice di riferimento, il report esamina gli sviluppi negli ultimi dieci anni, fino al mese di settembre 2020 dove possibile. Copre le tendenze a livello globale nella politica di messa al bando, documenta la contaminazione e gli incidenti dovuti allemunizioni cluster, così come gli sviluppi e le sfide nell’affrontare attraverso la bonifica e l’educazione al rischio l’impatto di queste armi, oltre agli sforzi per garantire i diritti e soddisfare i bisogni delle vittime.

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Un totale di 286 nuovi incidenti da munizioni cluster è stato registrato solo nel 2019, un dato inquietante, con il più alto numero registrato in Siria con 232 incidenti. Il reale numero dei nuovi incidenti è probabile che sia molto più alto perché diversi incidenti non vengono registrati. A livello globale i civili rappresentano il 99% di tutti gli incidenti registrati nel 2019, in cui era conosciuto lo status. Questo dato è coerente con le statistiche sugli incidenti da munizioni cluster di tutti i tempi, dovuto alla loro natura di arma indiscriminata.

Nel 2019 incidenti da attacchi con munizioni a grappolo e loro residuati sul terreno sono stati registrati in: Afghanistan, Iraq, Laos, Libano, Serbia, Siria, Sud Sudan, Yemen, Nagorno-Karabakh e Sahara Occidentale.
Il 2019 ha visto anche una maggiore concentrazione sull’educazione al rischio a causa del drammaticoaumento registrato per gli incidenti.

Il Cluster Munition Monitor 2020 riporta un totale di 26 paesi ed altre aree contaminate da resti di munizioni a grappolo, tra cui 10 Stati Parte alla CCM. La Croazia ed il Montenegro sono stati gli ultimi due paesi ad aver completato le operazioni di bonifica dei territori contaminati.
Solo nel 2019 sono stati bonificati oltre 82 kmq e sono state distrutti più di 96.500 resti di cluster munition.Carenze nei fondi hanno avuto un effetto sull’implementazione dei servizi necessari per l’assistenza allevittime.

Quest’anno il Report esce nel primo giorno della prima parte della Seconda Conferenza di Revisione della Convenzione sulle Munizioni Cluster, durante la quale i partecipanti valuteranno lo stato dei progressi e lesfide per realizzare l’adesione e l’attuazione universali della Convenzione e imposteranno il lavoro per i prossimi 5 anni. Il formato della conferenza è stato recentemente rivisto a causa del COVID19 e le relative restrizioni, con una prima parte che si terrà in maniera virtuale ed una seconda parte che avrà luogo a febbraio 2021.

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Per interviste:
Giuseppe Schiavello 340/4759230g.schiavello@campagnamine.org

per informazioni e materiali Tibisay Ambrosini348/1049619t.ambrosini@campagnamine.org

Cile e UK si dichiarano liberi dalle mine!

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Schermata 2020-11-21 alle 16.16.05

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Chile, UK Mine Free Announcements Highlight Mine Ban Treaty Meeting

(Geneva, 20 November 2020) - The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) is heartened by news this week from the 18th Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty that Chile and the United Kingdom have successfully completed their landmine clearance obligations under the treaty. With the two announcements, this brings to 31 the number of States Parties which were once contaminated and are now free of anti-personnel landmines. The mine-free 2025 goal established at the Maputo Review Conference and reaffirmed last year in Oslo is that much closer.

States Parties met this week to measure progress against targeted goals agreed to at the December 2019 Review Conference, including among others: clearing contaminated land as quickly as possible; destroying stockpiled mines; preventing new casualties through implementation of mine risk education activities; and increasing resources and assistance available to speed progress towards mine free status.

The conference took place in a virtual format for the first time as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to disrupt the global agenda. Despite the technical challenges, this Meeting of States Parties successfully took stock of progress and challenges in mine action and saw the participation of national mine action authorities as well as campaigners and survivors from all around the world.

The extensive discussion and declarations this week by States Parties, ICBL campaigners from around the world, partners, and the Mine Ban Treaty Presidency (Sudan), on the need for increased support for landmine victims, as a central pillar of effective mine action efforts, was highly welcomed. Landmine Monitor 2020 reported that some 8% of international funding went to assist victims of the weapon in 2019, while significant gaps remain in access to economic opportunities for survivors and other persons with disabilities in many of the States Parties. This situation was exacerbated in 2019 with survivors and persons with disabilities at greater risk of discrimination in accessing healthcare due to the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the Monitor and UN research.

Ensuring the full, equal and effective participation of mine survivors and victims in society, as agreed by States in the Oslo Action Plan, requires diligent follow up to ensure no one is left behind.

Several treaty compliance concerns were raised during the week regarding mines inappropriately retained for training, stockpile destruction deadlines, delayed action or non-action on mine clearance, poor reporting, and lack of national implementation measures. Nine mine clearance extension requests were presented during the week; notably absent was a request from State Party Eritrea as required under the treaty. ICBL together with several States and the Treaty President urged Eritrea to meet its obligations immediately as non-compliance weakens the treaty norm.

These compliance issues demand immediate and robust action by all States Parties tnsure progress achieved to date is not derailed.

The global stigma against landmine use remains strong including among most states not party; even in this difficult year 10 non-signatory states attended the meeting. In recent years, only one government armed force is confirmed to have used antipersonnel mines—Myanmar. However, we have also seen a continued high number of casualties recorded in 2019 as a result of intensive armed conflict involving the large-scale use of improvised mines, and mine use by non-state armed groups in at least six countries.

The mine clearance progress reported by States this year – 156 km2 vs 146 km2 in 2018, illustrates the huge impact this treaty continues to have on mine-affected communities around the world.

The clear will demonstrated by States this week for combined efforts to meet the mine free 2025 goals outlined in the Oslo Action Plan, must be met with well-defined commitments including through cooperative assistance and other means, to convert these aspirations to achievements.

###Ends###

Links:

  • ICBL - www.icbl.org;
  • Mine Ban Treaty - www.apminebanconvention.org
  • ICBL Twitter - twitter.com/minefreeworld
  • ICBL Facebook - facebook.com/pg/minefreeworld
  • ICBLFlickr - https://www.flickr.com/photos/minefreeworld
  • Landmine Monitor 2020 - bit.ly/LandmineMonitor2020

    For more information, or to schedule an interview, contact:

    Jared Bloch, Communications and Network Administration Manager, (CET), ICBL-CMC, Mobile/WhatsApp +41 (0) 78-683-4407 or email media@icblcmc.org.

CS – MINE MONITOR REPORT

Schermata 2020-11-12 alle 16.23.04

COMUNICATO STAMPA – (Roma, 12 novembre 2020) – Secondo quando riportato dal Landmine Monitor 2020 nella sua 22° edizione presentato oggi. Malgrado mentre i paesi si sforzino collettivamente di compiere progressi per raggiungere un mondo libero dalle mine durante la pandemia del COVID19, si registrano nuove insidiose sfide il nuovo utilizzo delle mine improvvisate da parte di gruppi armati non statali (NSAGs), un continuo numero in crescita degli incidenti tra i civili e la diminuzione a livello generale nel supporto alla mine action.

Ad oggi sono 164 i paesi che hanno aderito al Trattato di messa al bando delle mine, adottato 23 anni fa. Si tratta dell’80% dei paesi del mondo ed i 33 paesi restanti de facto ne rispettano gli obblighi.

Solo il Myanmar, che non è parte del Trattato, ha fatto uso di mine antipersona nel periodo che va tra metà 2019 fino ad ottobre 2020. Nello stesso periodo diversi gruppi armati non statali (NSAGs) hanno fatto uso di mine antipersona nei seguenti 6 paesi: Afghanistan, Colombia, India, Libia, Myanmar e Pakistan.

L’ampia distruzione delle scorte di questi ordigni indiscriminati continua ad essere uno dei più grandi successi del Trattato di messa al Bando delle Mine. Ad oggi gli Stati Parte hanno distrutto oltre 55 milioni di mine antipersona presenti negli arsenali, comprese oltre 269,000 mine distrutte nel 2019.

Il 2019 rappresenta il quinto anno consecutivo con un elevato numero di vittime da mina e da residuati bellici esplosivi (ERW), dovuti per lo più ai conflitti armati intensi e all’uso su larga scala di mine improvvisate. Secondo il Landmine Monitor 2020 sono stati registrati circa 5,554 incidenti da mine/ERW più della metà dei quali provocati da mine improvvisate (2,949). I civili sono ancora la maggioranza delle persone coinvolte negli incidenti rappresentando l’80% del totale, e di questi circa la metà coinvolge bambini (43%).

L’anno preso in esame dal report ha visto una riduzione nei finanziamenti dedicati alla Mine Action a livello generale, con 45 donatori e paesi contaminati che hanno contribuito per circa $650.7 milioni di dollari americani, un 7% in meno rispetto al 2018.

Gli Stati Parte considerati ancora inquinati da mine, fino ad ottobre 2020, sono 33. Sei di questi paesi dovrebbero riuscire a rispettare le rispettive scadenze per completare le operazioni di bonifica, mentre otto di questi paesi hanno richiesto un’estensione che verrà valutata al prossimo Meeting degli State Parte che si terrà in modalità online dal 16 al 22 novembre prossimo.

Malgrado alcuni miglioramenti relativi all’accessibilità, qualità e quantità di servizi per le vittime, la pandemia dovuta al COVID19 ha provocato restrizione nell’accesso ai servizi per i sopravvissuti e le persone con disabilità oltre che nell’esercizio dei propri diritti. L’impatto della pandemia è stato aggravato da anni di scarsità di risorse per ‘assistenza alle vittime in diversi paesi.

In questa edizione nel Monitor, dopo un decennio in cui ha ricevuto poca attenzione, la Risk Education torna ad essere una priorità, pilastro della mine action, essenziale per far convivere in sicurezza le popolazioni affette con l’eredità di morte rappresentata da questi ordigni.

Nel 2020 gli operatori della Risk Education sul campo hanno individuato e utilizzato strumenti online ed hanno unito al loro messaggio quello contenente le norme di prevenzione dal contagio del COVID19.

Durante il periodo preso in esame sono stati bonificati circa 156kmq e distrutte oltre 123,000 mine. Il Cile agli inizi del 2020 ha dichiarato di aver completato le operazioni di bonifica.

REPORT
Download

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Per interviste

Giuseppe Schiavello direttore Campagna Italiana contro le mine 340/4759230

g.schiavello@campagnamine.org

 

per materiali e informazioni

t.ambrosini@campagnamine.org

348/1049619

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2020_MBT_Casualities_Final 2020_MBT_Contamination_Final 2020_MBT_Support_Final 2020_MBT_TreatySatus_Final

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Uso di munizioni cluster in Nagorno-Karabakh

Schermata 2020-10-24 alle 11.15.38

Azerbaijan has repeatedly used widely banned cluster munitions in residential areas in Nagorno-Karabakh, Human Rights Watch said today. During an on-site investigation in Nagorno-Karabakh in October 2020, Human Rights Watch documented four incidents in which Azerbaijan used cluster munitions.

Fighting between Azerbaijan and Armenia and the de-facto authorities in Nagorno-Karabakh dramatically escalated on September 27, 2020. Two humanitarian ceasefires brokered by members of the Minsk Group of the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe have failed to halt the fighting. According to authorities from all parties, scores of civilians have been killed or injured in attacks in Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Azerbaijan.

“The continued use of cluster munitions – particularly in populated areas – shows flagrant disregard for the safety of civilians,” said Stephen Goose, arms division director at Human Rights Watch and chair of the Cluster Munition Coalition. “Cluster munitions should never be used by anyone under any circumstances, much less in cities, due to the foreseeable and unacceptable harm to civilians.”

In the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, Human Rights Watch is investigating whether all sides of the conflict adhere to international humanitarian law, which requires armed forces to distinguish between combatants and civilians, and between military objects and civilian objects, at all times. As such, indiscriminate attacks are prohibited, including attacks which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific legitimate military target. Human Rights Watch has made repeated requests to the Azerbaijani government for access to conduct on-site investigations, but access has not yet been granted.

Human Rights Watch examined remnants of the rockets, impacts, and remnants of submunitions that exploded, as well as dud submunitions that failed to function at several locations in Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh’s administrative center, which is called Khankendi in Azerbaijan. Human Rights Watch also examined photographs taken in the town of Hadrut of a rocket, impacts, and remnants of submunitions that exploded, and a dud submunition that failed to explode. Human Rights Watch also spoke to six people who witnessed the attacks. Azerbaijani officials have accused the Armenian side of using cluster munitions in this conflict, but Human Rights Watch has not independently verified those claims.

Residents of Stepanakert told Human Rights Watch that attacks using cluster munitions began on the morning of September 27 in a residential area no more than 200 meters from the office of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

A 69-year-old woman who was in her apartment on the fourth floor of a building next to where Human Rights Watch observed scores of the distinctive impacts of the M095 submunitions said the building began to shake around 7:15 a.m.: “The children started to scream and everyone was panicking when the bombs started coming down. We opened the windows and saw that the cars were burning. We saw that they had small pink things that were making them burn, so we ran down to the basement.”

She said that a number of submunitions did not explode and that people in the neighborhood covered them with sand from the children’s playground until emergency responders came the next day to secure and remove them. She said glass broken from the blasts injured a number of people in the neighborhood. Another resident told Human Rights Watch that dozens of vehicles were damaged.

On October 12, Human Rights Watch visited the site and, in addition to the distinctive impacts of the submunitions, Human Rights Watch observed several damaged and burned vehicles and numerous broken windows in nearby apartments and a shop located in the courtyard. However, the exact damage to the area done by the submunitions is unknown because another subsequent attack was carried out with a different munition in roughly the same location.

At least one more LAR-160 cluster munition rocket was fired roughly into the same area several hundred meters away. Human Rights Watch observed the remnants of a LAR-160 rocket, scores of the distinctive impacts of the M095 submunitions, the remnants of the pink-colored stabilization ribbons, and submunition fragments. Numerous buildings, private business, and markets had varying degrees of damage from the attack.

Human Rights Watch spoke to one worker for a nongovernmental group who observed a fire in a shop following an attack in this second neighborhood when he visited the site at approximately 11:20 p.m. on October 3. Human Rights Watch also reviewed a photograph taken by this witness that, according to the photograph’s metadata, was captured on October 3 at 11:20 p.m.

video uploaded on the Telegram channel “Re:public of Artsakh” on October 4, captured another cluster munition rocket attack on Hakob Hakobyan Street in Stepanakert. Human Rights Watch spoke to two people who live on Hakob Hakobyan Street and witnessed the attack. One 55-year-old resident said that she was in her fourth-floor apartment during the attack. She said that some of the explosions occurred on the roof and ruptured the water pipes on the top of the building, causing water to run down from the upper floors. As a consequence, the water was shut off to the building.

Rescue services were able to clear the submunitions from the top of the building after several days and access to water was restored but there has been no electricity in the building since the attack. An individual familiar with the electrical grid told Human Rights Watch that they were working to restore electricity in the area but could only provide electricity to basements and shelters for the time being.

Human Rights Watch was not able to identify any military equipment or bases in the three neighborhoods where the attacks took place. Even if there had been, given the indiscriminate effects of cluster munitions, their use in a residential civilian setting is not permitted under the laws of war.

Human Rights Watch also examined 35 photographs and one video shared directly with Human Rights Watch from the town of Hadrut of a LAR-160 rocket and its fuse, impacts, and remnants of M095 submunitions that exploded, and dud submunitions that failed to explode in and around a home. According to the metadata of the media, they were recorded on October 3. Human Rights Watch verified the location of the video and photographs as taken in the town of Hadrut. On October 4, a video was uploaded on YouTube by the Armenian Service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty that showed the same house and remnants.

Cluster munitions have been banned because of their widespread indiscriminate effect and long-lasting danger to civilians. Cluster munitions typically explode in the air and send dozens, even hundreds, of small bomblets over an area the size of a football field. Cluster submunitions often fail to explode on initial impact, leaving duds that act like landmines.

The 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions comprehensively prohibits cluster munitions and requires their clearance as well as assistance to victims. Armenia and Azerbaijan are not among the treaty’s 110 states parties. Both say that they cannot accede to the treaty until the dispute over Nagorno-Karabakh is resolved. Both should take the necessary steps to join the Convention on Cluster Munitions without delay, Human Rights Watch said.

Regardless of specific treaty obligations, all parties to the conflict are bound by the Geneva Conventions and customary international law and must abide by the fundamental principles of international humanitarian law, which requires armed forces to distinguish between combatants and civilians, and between military objects and civilian objects, at all times. It is also forbidden to carry out indiscriminate attacks or attacks that cause excessive civilian damage to the anticipated concrete military advantage.

“The repeated use of cluster munitions by Azerbaijan should cease immediately as their continued use serves to heighten the danger for civilians for years to come,” Goose said.
Human Rights Watch identified the remnants of Israeli-produced LAR-160 series cluster munition rockets and unexploded M095 dual-purpose submunitions in Stepanakert and Hadrut. Each rocket carries 104 submunitions and each submunition is equipped with a self-destruct mechanism. Azerbaijan received these surface-to-surface rockets and launchers from Israel in 2008–2009. Neither Armenia, nor Nagorno-Karabakh de-facto authorities, are known to stockpile cluster munitions but they possess multi-barrel rocket launchers capable of delivering these weapons.

Human Rights Watch identified the Israeli-produced M095 dual-purpose submunition in each location. When this submunition detonates on impact, it produces lethal pre-formed metal fragments and a jet of molten metal intended to destroy vehicles and materiel. Human Rights Watch observed hundreds of the distinctive impacts of M095 submunitions as well as remnants of the pink-colored nylon stabilization ribbons in three neighborhoods in Stepanakert.

On October 13, Human Rights Watch visited the site where the witness saw and photographed the burning shop at 11:20 p.m. on October 3 and observed the same scorched building visible in the photograph and at least three pink stabilization ribbons a few meters away from the building as well as numerous distinctive impacts consistent with M095 submunitions. Human Rights Watch found remnants of a LAR-160 rocket 10 meters from the building and observed impacts to the roof of the building that were consistent with kinetic damage. According to available satellite imagery, the attack took place between September 27 and October 8. On October 8, the imagery shows damage to the building that is consistent with fire.

In the attack on Hakob Hakobyan Street, the distinctive auditory signature of at least three separate rockets dispersing payloads of submunitions, and their subsequent detonations can be heard in the video of the attack, believed to have been filmed by a vehicle’s dashcam. On October 12, Human Rights Watch visited the site where the video was taken and counted over 100 individual impacts on the same street. Human Rights Watch also observed scores of submunition impacts on immediately adjacent streets and on rooftops of office and residential buildings on several adjacent streets within a 100-meter radius. In a separate visit on October 13, Human Rights Watch found the remnants of a LAR-160 series rocket less than 100 meters from the location the video of the attack was taken. Human Rights Watch observed damage to power lines, children’s playgrounds, vehicles, businesses, homes, the main post office, and the Karabakh Telecom building.

 

https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/10/23/azerbaijan-cluster-munitions-used-nagorno-karabakh

Cluster Munitions Attacks in Nagorno-Karabakh Deserve Condemnation

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Cluster Munitions Attacks in Nagorno-Karabakh Deserve Condemnation: Armenia and Azerbaijan Should Commit to Join Ban Treaty

(Geneva, 6 October 2020) – The Cluster Munition Coalition condemns the use of cluster munitions in Nagorno-Karabakh and calls on Armenia and Azerbaijan to join the treaty banning these weapons.

“The evidence showing banned cluster munitions are being used in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is deeply alarming,” said Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) Director Hector Guerra. “To avoid harming more civilians, Armenia and Azerbaijan should commit not to use cluster munitions and take steps to join the Convention on Cluster Munitions without delay.”

According to Amnesty International, Azerbaijani forces appear to have fired cluster munitions rockets in Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh on 3-4 October. It identified them as Israeli-made M095 DPICM cluster munitions. Officials from Azerbaijan have reportedly denied that their forces are using cluster munitions in Nagorno-Karabakh and allege that Armenian forces are using them.

Previously, in 2016, cluster munitions were used in Nagorno-Karabakh. Armenia and Azerbaijan claim to not produce or export cluster munitions, however, Azerbaijan inherited a stockpile of the weapon from the Soviet Union and has received transfers from Israel.

Both countries say they cannot accede to the Convention on Cluster Munitions until the Nagorno- Karabakh conflict is resolved.

A total of 123 nations have joined the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Switzerland will host the convention’s Second Review Conference in Lausanne on 23-27 November. The Cluster Munition Coalition is cooperating closely with States Parties to bring as many new states on board the convention as possible in the run-up to the Second Review Conference.

“Our message is clear: we loudly condemn any use of cluster munitions by anyone, anywhere, and call on Armenia and Azerbaijan, and all states not party, to join the convention immediately to save lives and prevent future tragedies”, said Hector Guerra.

### Ends ###

Schermata 2020-10-06 alle 17.25.20

Links:

  • CMC Webpage - http://stopclustermunitions.org
  • CMC Twitter - https://twitter.com/banclusterbombs
  • Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor Twitter - twitter.com/MineMonitor
  • Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor - http://www.the-monitor.org/en-gb/home.aspx
  • Convention on Cluster Munitions - https://www.clusterconvention.orgFor more information, or to schedule an interview, contact:• Jared Bloch, Communications and Network Administration Manager, (CET), Mobile/WhatsApp +41 (0) 78-683-4407 or email media@icblcmc.org

Schermata 2020-10-06 alle 17.26.00

Report Confronting Conflict Pollution

Schermata 2020-10-06 alle 16.44.11

Presentato il report Confronting Conflict Pollution: Principles for Assisting Victims of Toxic Remnants of War co-pubblicato dalla Harvard Law School’s International Human Rights Clinic e dal Conflict and Environment Observatory. Il report si basa ampiamente sui principi di assistenza alle vittime proposti dal disarmo umanitario.

 

 

 

Link da cui si può scaricare il REPORT
https://humanitariandisarmament.org/2020/10/03/confronting-conflict-pollution-launch-of-principles-for-assisting-victims-of-toxic-remnants-of-war/

Mine Action e Covid19

Schermata 2020-09-29 alle 17.25.09

Da sabato 3 ottobre nelle librerie italiane, associato a una copia dell’Atlante delle guerre e dei conflitti, esce un aggiornamento dedicato allo sviluppo del Covid19 e ai suoi riflessi sugli equilibri geopolitici mondiali. L’aggiornamento di 32 pagine è dedicato allo sviluppo della pandemia non solo dal punto di vista sanitario, ma entra nel dettaglio di quali sono state le principali strategie per contenerla e sconfiggerla. E soprattutto quali sono state le conseguenze socio-economiche e politiche a livello mondiale. Descrive inoltre i riposizionamenti strategici e militari, la rete delle alleanze internazionali, gli scontri che la pandemia ha alimentato o creato, la tregua inascoltata  lanciata dall’Onu e dal Papa  e i casi in cui la “scusa” della pandemia ha permesso leggi speciali e la sospensione dei diritti. Con una ricca presenza di infografiche, cartine geografiche e le fotografie di Fabio Bucciarelli realizzate per il New York Times.

Dall’editoriale di Raffaele Crocco direttore del Progetto Atlante delle guerre
 “Ci abbiamo sperato, diciamolo: per lungo tempo abbiamo sperato che la grande crisi nata dal Covid19 creasse le condizioni per un Mondo migliore. Non sarà così. Sarà semplicemente un Mondo diverso. La pandemia non ha riequilibrato la distribuzione della ricchezza. Mancano i dati, ma l’impressione è che i ricchi lo siano diventati un po’ di più. Certo, il Pil mondiale è crollato ovunque, con punte del 30% negli Stati Uniti nei primi sei mesi del 2020, del 10-12% nell’Unione Europea, del 25% in Africa. Ma ad essere colpiti sono stati soprattutto i poveri. L’economia informale, quella di strada, che consentiva a miliardi di persone di vivere in Africa, America Latina e Asia, è stata spazzata via. I lavoratori dipendenti di Europa e Stati Uniti hanno visto i loro posti di lavoro sfumare, spesso con scadenti ammortizzatori sociali a disposizione. E mentre tutto questo accade, alcune cose non si fermano, immense risorse – che potrebbero essere impiegate per contrastare l’epidemia sul piano sanitario, sociale ed economico – vengono investite in altro. Ad esempio, in armi…”

MIne Action e Covid19 - 2020.pdf

 

 

Qui in particolare troverete l ‘articolo di Giuseppe Schiavello, Direttore ItCBL Campagna Italiana Contro le Mine

Schermata 2020-09-29 alle 17.28.07